用tikz-imagelabels宏包实现插图注解

插图 2019-10-01 09:15  浏览 :546
在使用插图时,往往需要对插图进行注解,如添加说明、强调标记等。 用户通常会使用“绘图”、“Photoshop”等工具通过图像编辑来实现插图注解。这是一种简单直接的方法,但这种方法会存在如下问题: - 需要额外的软件支持,降低了文档的独立性。 - 字体、字号无法与正文匹配,整体效果不协调。 - 无法生成矢量注释文字,缩放会发生变形。 - 不便后期修改、编辑和维护。 为此,可采用TiKZ绘图工具,通过各种绘图命令实现注解。为简化操作,也可使用基于TiKZ的宏包实现注解。这类宏包较多,在此,以tikz-imagelabels为例进行说明。 tikz-imagelabels宏包仅定义了一个annotationimage环境,image label、coordinate label和annotation三个\\\\draw命令绘图样式。同时,该宏包也定义了一个\\\\imagelabelset命令用于设置注解属性。 ##annotationimage环境 annotationimage环境用于载入插图,其语法为: ```tex annotationimage[]{}{} ``` 其中,可选参数`[]`用于打开/关闭辅助坐标网格。`{}`和`{}`两个参数与\\\\includegraphics命令的对应参数含义完全相同,如: ```tex \\begin{annotationimage}[grid]{width=6cm}{pleiades.jpg} \\end{annotationimage} ``` 用于载入图像“pleiades.jpg”,将宽度为6cm,并显示辅助坐标网格,结果为:
载入插图后,便可以在annotationimage环境中使用TiKZ的\\\\draw命令,结合tikz-imagelabels宏包定义的image label、coordinate label和annotation三个绘图样式为插图进行注解。 ###image label样式 image label样式用于按**罗盘坐标系**在**插图内部**进行注解,其语法为: ```tex \\draw[image label = { at }]; ``` 该样式用于在插图的``位置添加``标记,``按罗盘坐标取值,可取**north west**、 **north**、**north east**、**east**、**south east**、**south**、**south west**、**west**、**center**中的任意一个值。如: ```tex \\begin{annotationimage}{width=6cm}{example-image} \\draw[image label = {north at north}]; \\draw[image label = {north east at north east}]; \\draw[image label = {east at east}]; \\draw[image label = {south east at south east}]; \\draw[image label = {south at south}]; \\draw[image label = {south west at south west}]; \\draw[image label = {west at west}]; \\draw[image label = {north west at north west}]; \\draw[image label = {center at center}]; \\end{annotationimage} ``` 其结果为:
###coordinate label样式 coordinate label样式用于按**笛卡尔坐标系**在**插图内部**进行注解,其语法为: ```tex \\draw[coordinate label = { at ()}]; ``` 该样式用于在插图的``位置添加``标记,``按笛卡尔坐标取值。如: ```tex \\begin{annotationimage}{width=6cm}{pleiades.jpg} \\draw[coordinate label = {1 at (0.1,0.3)}]; \\draw[coordinate label = {2 at (0.4,0.6)}]; \\draw[coordinate label = {3 at (0.65,0.25)}]; \\draw[coordinate label = {4 at (0.9,0.4)}]; \\draw[coordinate label = {5 at (0.62,0.62)}]; \\draw[coordinate label = {6 at (0.83,0.8)}]; \\draw[image label = {M45 at south east}]; \\end{annotationimage} ``` 其结果为(同时使用了image label样式):
###annotation样式 annotation样式用于按**制图格式**在**插图外部**进行注解,其语法为: ```tex \\draw[annotation = { at }] to (, ); ``` 该样式用于在插图外部的``位置的``坐标添加标记,并绘制标记指示线到图像内部按笛卡尔坐标确定的`(, )`位置。 其中,``可取**above**, **right**, **below**或**left**,分别表示在插图外部上、右、下、左四个方向进行标记。当``取above、below时,``表示标记的x坐标。当``取right、left时,``表示标记的y坐标。 如: ```tex \\begin{annotationimage}{width=6cm}{pleiades.jpg} \\draw[annotation left = {Atlas at 0.3}] to (0.11,0.4); \\draw[annotation left = {Pleione at 0.55}] to (0.11,0.49); \\draw[annotation left = {Alcyone at 0.8}] to (0.39,0.45); \\draw[annotation below = {Merope at 0.5}] to (0.58,0.28); \\draw[annotation right = {Electra at 0.3}] to (0.84,0.45); \\draw[annotation right = {Caleano at 0.75}] to (0.85,0.64); \\draw[annotation above = {Maia at 0.4}] to (0.67,0.72); \\draw[annotation above = {Taygeta at 0.9}] to (0.78,0.82); \\draw[image label = {M45 at south east}]; \\end{annotationimage} ``` 其结果为(同时使用了image label样式):
##\\\\imagelabelset命令 \\\\imagelabelset命令用于设置注解属性,可以在导言区进行全局设置,也可在使用中进行局部设置。 该命令采用TiKZ的key-value语法: ```tex \\imagelabelset{ = , ...} ``` 该命令能够设置的属性参数及示例如: ```tex \\imagelabelset{ coarse grid color = red, fine grid color = gray, image label font = sffamilybfseriessmall, image label distance = 2mm, image label back = black, image label text = white, coordinate label font = sffamilybfseriesscriptsize, coordinate label distance = 2mm, coordinate label back = black, coordinate label text = white, annotation font = normalfontsmall, arrow distance = 1.5mm, border thickness = 0.6pt, arrow thickness = 0.4pt, tip size = 1.2mm, outer dist = 0.5cm, } ``` 有关该宏包的使用细节,请在命令行用`texdoc tikz-imagelabels`查阅其使用说明书。 另外,该宏包的源码非常简洁,可以模仿该宏包开发其它的宏包。笔者模仿该宏包编写的一个用于绘制程序流程的宏包见:https://github.com/registor/tikz-flowchart 。 Happy TiKZing!
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sikouhjw
1楼 · 2019-10-01 17:07

最后的https://github.com/registor/tikz-flowchart。其中句号被包含在超链接中,直接点进去是错误的网址